Introduction Geography & Climate History Lorestan today

1.1. Introduction

Lorestan comprises a province and a historic territory of western Iran amidst the Zagros Mountains.
The population of LORESTAN is estimated around 1,850,000 people. Lorestan constitutes of 10 counties Aligudarz , Azna, Borujerd, Delfan, Dorud, Doureh, Khorramabad, Kuhdasht, Selseleh, and Poldokhtar.
Lorestan covers an area of 28,175 km. The major cities in this province could be summarized as: Borujerd, Khorramabad, Aligoodarz, Dorood, Koohdasht, Azna, Alashta and Pol-e-Dokhtar.
Lorestan central coordination locates in 33.4871N and 48.3538E.
The name Lorestan means "land of the Lurs", and in the wider sense consists of that part of western Iran coinciding with the province of Ilam and extending for about 400 miles on a northwest to southeast axis from Kermanshah to Fars, with a breadth of 100 to 140 miles.
Central coordination of the province locates in 33.4871N 48.3538E.
Khorramabad is the capital of Lorestan, a province in western Iran. It has an estimated population of 350,000 in 2010. It is situated in the Zagros Mountains. Khorramabad Airport is 3 km south of the town proper.
The city population is predominantly Lak and Lur, Lurs are Iranian people who speak the Luri or Lurish language. During the summer season nomadic Lur tribes migrate here to sell their handicrafts in the cities numerous bazaars.
Although not a major tourist destination, it is quite scenic and possesses several attractions, such as 5 Paleolithic cave-dwelling sites. In the city center, a tall citadel called Falak-ol-Aflak (The Heaven of Heavens), a relic of the Sassanid era, is now a nationally popular museum.
Economically, it is the regional base of the agricultural industry.

1.2. Geography and Climate

The terrain consists chiefly of mountains, with numerous ranges, part of the Zagros chain, running northwest to southeast. The central range has many summits which almost reach the line of perpetual snow, rising to 13,000 feet and more, and it feeds the headwaters of Iran's most important rivers, such as the Zayandeh rud, Jarahi, Karun, Dix, Abi, Karkheh. Between the higher ranges lie many fertile plains and low hilly, well-watered districts.
The highest point of the province is Oshtoran Kooh peak at 4,050 m. The low-lying areas being in the southern most sector of the province are approximately 500 m above sea level.
The climate is generally sub-humid continental with winter precipitation, a lot of which falls as snow Koppen Csa .Because it lies on the westernmost slopes of the Zagros Mountains, annual precipitation in Lorestan is among the highest anywhere in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains. At Khorramabad, the average annual precipitation totals 530 millimeters) 21 inches) of rainfall equivalent, whilst up to 1270 millimeters may fall on the highest mountains. The months June to September are usually absolutely dry, but Khorramabad can expect 4 inches of rainfall equivalent in December and January.
Temperatures vary widely with the seasons and between day and night. At Khorramabad, summer temperatures typically range from a minimum of 12C )54F) to a hot maximum of 32C. In winter, they range from a minimum of -2C to a chilly maximum of 8C.

1.3. History

Lorestan is one of the oldest regions of Iran. In the third and fourth millennium B.C., migrant tribes settled down in the mountainous area of the Zagros Mountains. The Kassites, an ancient people who spoke neither an Indo-European nor a Semitic language, originated in Lorestan.
Lorestan was invaded and settled by the Iranian Medes in the second millennium B.C. The Medes absorbed the indigenous inhabitants of the region, primarily the Elamites and Kassites, by the time the area was conquered by the Persians in the first millennium B.C.
Lorestan was successfully integrated into the Achamenid, Parthian and Sassanian empires. Parts of Lorestan managed to stay independent during the Arab, Seljuk and Mongol invasions.
Lorestan owns 263 sites of historical and cultural significances.
Prior to the 20th century the majority of Lurs were nomadic herders, with an urban minority residing in the city of Khorramabad.
In the northern part of Lorestan, formerly known as Lesser Lorestan ("Lur-e-Kuchik"), live the Faylis, divided into the Pishkuh Lurs in the east and Pushtkuh Lurs in the adjoining Iraqi territory in the west.
Lesser Lorestan maintained its independence under a succession of princes of the Khorshidi dynasty, known as Atabegs, from A.D. 1155 to the beginning of the 17th century.
The southern part of the province, formerly known as Greater Lorestan ("Lur-e-Bozourg"), comprises the Bakhtiari region of the province of Khuzestan and the districts of the Mamasenni and Kuhgilu Lurs which are located in Fars province. At one time, Greater Lorestan formed an independent state under the Fazlevieh Atabegs from A.D. 1160 until 1424. Its capital, Idaj, survives as mounds and ruins at Malamir, sixty miles southeast of the city of Shushtar in Khuzestan.

1.4. Lorestan today

The Lorestan province concerning availability of extensive mountains and plenteous meadows, have far been considered as residence for farmer and stockbreeder people. Consequently, tribal structure has been of great importance in the province. Clans and tribes of the province are vastly spread, however, could be generally categorized as two major sections of nomad and immovable.
Major industrial provincial activities include constructing, cement, metal, ceramic, food, clothing, handicrafts and chemicals, could be named. There are also some mines in the province including Travertan stone, Marmarit, Cold Stone, Talk, lime stone, zinc and lead.

Major academic centers of LORESTAN province include
    1. Lorestan University of Medical Sciences
    3. Islamic Azad University of Khorram Abad
    5. Al-ghadir Applicational Scientific Comprehensive University
    2. University of Lorestan
    4. Shahid Madani school of Khoramabad
The most important cities of the province are described as below, in brief.
Azna is a city in the Lorestan Province, located inside the Zagros Mountains. The population is estimated to number 50,000 residents.
This township is located 40 km, east of Dorood and 20 km west of Aligoodarz. It experiences cold winters and moderate summers. About 600 years ago the Armenians immigrated to this area, forming the village of Azna. This town ship is en route Esfahan - Khuzestan and is connected to the railway network of the country.
Delfan County with the capital of Nurabad, is also known as Alashtar County informally. It is a mountainous region in the northwest of Lorestan province. It has cold weather in winters and its height from sea level is more than 1,600 meters. Most of the inhabitants of this town are farmers. The natural landscapes of this region, especially in winter and spring, are really beautiful. The people in this region speak Laki, which is one of the most dominant and important languages in the west of Iran.It consists of several tribes: Mirbag, Noorali, Shahivand, Kakavand, Itivand, Oladghobad and Koolivand.
Main attractions of the province include:
  • Cheshmak Gorge Promenade, Pol-e-Dokhtar
  • Makhmal Kooh, Shabikhoon Gorge, Promenade, Khorram Abad
  • Baba Abbas, Father Abbas, Promenade,
  • Falakolaflak Castle
  • Shapuri, broken, bridge, Khoram Abad
  • Mirza Seied Reza Menareh Ajori bazaar, mall,
  • Ab Sefid, White Water, Fall
  • Goosheh Promenade, Khorram Abad
  • Nojian Promenade, Khorram Abad
  • Shirez Promenade
  • Hoze Musa, Muses Dock, Promenade,
  • Shooy, Tale Zang Fall,
  • Bishe Fall,